Discussion on countermeasures and measures to prev

2022-08-08
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Introduction: Coal Mine pneumoconiosis refers to the whole body disease mainly caused by chronic fibrosis (scar) of lung tissue caused by long-term inhalation of productive dust (dust) and retention in the lungs by coal mine workers during underground production. Coal mine pneumoconiosis is currently the highest incidence rate of occupational diseases in China. Once it occurs, it is often difficult to cure a chronic occupational disease, with a high disability rate, a high risk of death, and the most serious damage to the health of coal mine workers. Over the past 30 years of reform and opening up, China has reported more than 500000 cases of occupational diseases. Among them, 23812 cases of pneumoconiosis were reported in 2010, accounting for 87.42%. In recent years, mass occupational disease incidents have occurred from time to time, and have become a public health problem affecting social stability. Through the investigation and analysis of coal mine pneumoconiosis cases, the main factors causing coal mine pneumoconiosis are management and environmental factors. Therefore, we should do a good job in advance prevention, implement dust prevention technical measures, strengthen occupational health examination and patient treatment, and effectively reduce and control the occurrence of coal mine pneumoconiosis. Let me talk about the countermeasures and measures to prevent and control coal mine pneumoconiosis

first, there are two main factors causing the incidence of coal mine pneumoconiosis

(I) management factors

due to the concealment and injury of coal mine pneumoconiosis, many additives and timeliness characteristics are included in the new data, and the classification and practical method of fire performance of surface type fire retardant coatings, tunnel combustion method gb/t 15442.3 – 1995, the leaders and employees of coal mining enterprises do not have enough understanding of its harmfulness; Coal mine pneumoconiosis prevention and control work institutions are not perfect, the system is not implemented in place, and technical management is a mere formality

(II) environmental factors

1. Composition of dust. The composition of dust in the air of workplace and its concentration in the air are important factors that directly determine the nature and severity of its harm to human body

2. Dust dispersion. The higher the dispersion of dust, the longer the floating time in the air, the slower the sedimentation speed, the more opportunities for absorption by the human body, and the greater the harm to the human body

3. Dust concentration and exposure time. The higher the concentration of dust in the working environment, the longer the exposure time, and the greater the harm to human body

II. Countermeasures and measures to prevent and control coal mine pneumoconiosis

(I) establish institutions, establish systems, re implement

1. Improve the prevention and control institutions of coal mine pneumoconiosis. In order to implement the people-oriented, prevention first and comprehensive treatment policy for the prevention and control of coal mine pneumoconiosis in coal mine workplaces, according to the relevant provisions of laws and regulations such as the production safety law, the relevant national departments and industry associations of occupational diseases have also successively formulated the corresponding policies and measures Prevention Law and the regulations on work safety license, establish and improve the leading organization for the prevention and control of coal mine pneumoconiosis, and be responsible for formulating the prevention and control plan of coal mine pneumoconiosis Strengthen the leadership of the prevention and control of pneumoconiosis in coal mines through the annual plan, institutional setup, division of responsibilities, and implementation of funds. Establish and improve the management organization of coal mine pneumoconiosis prevention and control, and allocate full-time management personnel to be responsible for the daily management of coal mine pneumoconiosis prevention and control

2. Further improve the occupational health and safety management system. First, according to the principle of level by level responsibility, improve the coal mine pneumoconiosis prevention and control system with leadership responsibility, division of labor responsibility, professional responsibility and post responsibility, formulate the pneumoconiosis prevention and control responsibilities of personnel at all levels, so that everyone has, everything has management, work has standards, assessment has basis, and each level pays attention to the implementation, so as to realize the real sense of mass prevention and treatment, and ensure that the prevention and control of coal mine pneumoconiosis is in place. Second, in accordance with the requirements of the provisions on the prevention and control of occupational hazards in coal mine workplaces (ajzct [2010] No. 121), 14 systems, including the prevention and control system of coal mine pneumoconiosis, should be formulated, and the reward and punishment system for occupational health should be established and improved to increase the intensity of assessment, reward and punishment. At the same time, establish and improve the supervision and inspection system for the prevention and control of pneumoconiosis in coal mines and strictly implement it. The third is to report the implementation of pneumoconiosis prevention and control in coal mines at each safety office meeting to solve the actual problems. Fourth, the occurrence of coal mine pneumoconiosis accident, in accordance with the principle of "four do not let go", to the end; If the person involved in the accident is seriously dealt with and constitutes a crime, he shall be transferred to the judicial organ and investigated for criminal responsibility according to law. To this end, through supervision and inspection, ensure that the system is in place

(II) pay attention to education, training and quality improvement

1. Carry out publicity and education activities on the prevention and control of coal mine pneumoconiosis in various forms. The first is to carry out publicity and education in the form of radio, cable TV, local area, window, blackboard newspaper, etc., further expand and deepen the publicity and education content of coal mine pneumoconiosis, summarize and promote the good experience and good practices formed in the prevention and control of coal mine pneumoconiosis, compile typical cases and maxims, aphorisms, messages, etc. formed in work practice in a timely manner, and educate workers and warn them through carriers such as the knowledge Gallery of coal mine pneumoconiosis prevention and control. Second, the sealing ring or combined gasket should be replaced in time by carrying out safety production month, safety knowledge contest and speech contest; Activities to understand and master the knowledge of coal mine pneumoconiosis prevention and control. Third, we should start from improving the leaders' understanding of pneumoconiosis, and take improving the quality of employees as a basic strategy for the development of enterprises, so as to form a good atmosphere in which everyone attaches importance to the prevention and control of pneumoconiosis and people are responsible for the prevention and control of pneumoconiosis

2. Clearly inform in the labor contract. When signing a labor contract with each employee, the employer must truthfully inform the employees of the possible pneumoconiosis hazards and their consequences, pneumoconiosis prevention measures and treatment in the production process, and make clear provisions in the content of the labor contract. Bulletin boards shall be set up at eye-catching positions on the production and operation site to publish the rules and regulations, operating procedures and dust hazard factor test results related to the prevention and control of pneumoconiosis

3. Strict assessment of supervision and inspection. In accordance with the pneumoconiosis prevention and control publicity, education and training system, carry out publicity, education and training on pneumoconiosis prevention and control for employees, establish and improve the reward and punishment mechanism, and strictly assess. Establish and improve the supervision and inspection system and strictly implement it. Give full play to the role of public opinion supervision and mass supervision, and encourage the masses to report violations of coal mine pneumoconiosis prevention and control

4. The training content should be targeted, teachers should prepare lessons fully, and the training forms should be diversified. (1) The training content should be targeted, and the training should focus on the prevention of coal mine pneumoconiosis, constantly improve the safety quality level of the majority of employees, and realize the promotion of preventing coal mine pneumoconiosis from me. (2) Teachers should prepare lessons fully and strive to be proficient and concise in lectures. To achieve this, first, we must have a thorough grasp of pneumoconiosis laws and regulations, production and operation processes, and be proficient in them, so that we can understand the content explained, and speak in class so that we can be handy and express accurately; Second, the language should be fluent and concise to make the finishing point. In the classroom, the teacher and the trainees adopt an interactive way to solve the problems encountered by the trainees in the actual work. The answers must be accurate, and must not be arbitrary and ambiguous. (3) Training forms should be diversified. First, break the old training thinking and mode from the training form, and boldly promote training innovation. For example, high-tech means are used to simulate the whole process of coal mine pneumoconiosis in miners, so as to improve employees' understanding of coal mine pneumoconiosis. The second is to go deep into the field and carry out field teaching of each process and cycle in the whole process of production, that is, to talk about theory and teach operation, so that employees can quickly master the operating procedures and theoretical knowledge of coal mine dust prevention and control in this post, so as to realize the sublimation that I can prevent coal mine pneumoconiosis and I can prevent coal mine pneumoconiosis. Field teaching generally adopts the way of old workers leading new workers or apprentices. Sometimes teachers or engineering technicians explain a new process, new equipment and new technology

(III) using technology, controlling the source and early prevention

dust will be generated in all production processes of mining and transportation systems in the mine, and these dust will fly in the working space and roadway with the wind flow. The key to control the occurrence of pneumoconiosis in coal mines is to prevent and minimize the inhalation of dust in the lungs. Therefore, comprehensive dust-proof technical measures should be taken:

1. Process reform and equipment innovation. Give priority to the use of new technologies, processes and materials that are conducive to the prevention and control of coal mine pneumoconiosis and the protection of workers' health, such as the use of remote control, computer control, etc. to avoid employees' exposure to dust

2. Dust reduction measures. Reduce the amount of dust prevention in the workplace of the mining face, mainly including: improve the structure of mining machinery and its operating parameters to reduce dust, adopt wet drilling, water sealed blasting, add water blasting mud blasting, close the dust source, adopt dust cover and pre wet coal dust reduction measures, etc., to reduce the amount of dust during mining operations

3. Dust reduction measures. Establish and improve the comprehensive dust-proof sprinkler system, install dust-proof facilities in accordance with the provisions of the coal mine safety regulations, and track and implement the use situation; Regularly clean and wash the roadway, especially the sides of the conveyor and the transfer point that are easy to accumulate dust; Each dust producing point adopts spray water spraying, such as inner and outer spray on the shearer, blasting spray, support spray, dust remover, foam dust removal, rock loading water spraying and roadway purification water curtain, so as to reduce the concentration of each dust producing point

4. Mine ventilation and dust removal. After taking other dust prevention measures at each dust producing point in the mine, there is still a certain amount of dust entering the mine air, most of which are fine dust less than 10 m, which should be ventilated and discharged in time. According to the regulations of coal mine safety regulations, the wind speed shall be adjusted reasonably, and it is strictly prohibited to prevent dust flying due to the wind speed exceeding the limit

5. Personal protection. Although a number of dust prevention measures have been taken in various production links of the mine, the dust concentration at individual operation sites still fails to meet the health standards. In this case, especially under the conditions of strong dust production and individual operators who are not suitable for installing dust-proof equipment, they must wear personal dust-proof protective equipment

6. Mine dust detection. Entrust a qualified testing and inspection organization to regularly test and evaluate the dust detection in the mine workplace, and check whether the test results meet the relevant regulations. If not, rectify in time

(IV) physical examination, file building

1. Physical examination before work. Conduct a health examination for new miners and those who change their jobs or work content, and establish personal occupational health records

2. Physical examination during on-the-job. Physical examination shall be carried out according to the time interval specified by the state, and the examination results shall be truthfully informed to myself, and personal occupational health files shall be established. For the patients with occupational diseases, they should be treated, recuperated and transferred from the harmful operation posts in time according to the national regulations, and do a good job in health monitoring and reporting of coal mine pneumoconiosis

3. Physical examination when leaving the post. After leaving or retiring, an occupational health examination should be carried out, and irregular occupational health examination should also be carried out, and personal occupational health files should be established

in a word, by further improving the organizational guarantee measures and comprehensive dust prevention technical measures for the harm of coal mine pneumoconiosis, strengthening the publicity, education and training of coal mine pneumoconiosis knowledge, improving the awareness of cadres and employees about the harm of coal mine pneumoconiosis, doing a good job in the physical examination of dust exposed personnel, and achieving early detection, early treatment and early treatment of pneumoconiosis patients, it is an effective way to reduce and control coal mine pneumoconiosis



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